Borobudur temple


Borobudur is the name of a Buddhist temple located at Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java. The location of the temple is approximately 100 km southwest of  Semarang city and 40 km northwest of Yogyakarta. Borobudur was built by King Samaratungga, one of the kings of Old Mataram Kingdom, descendant Syailendra dynasty. Based Kayumwungan inscription, an Indonesian named Hudaya Kandahjaya revealed that Borobudur is a place of worship was completed on 26 May 824, almost a hundred years from the time the construction. The name of Borobudur, as some people means a mountain having terraces (budhara), while the other says that Borobudur means monastery on the high ground. Borobudur has the basic structure punden terraces, with a six-yard square, three round circular courtyard and a main stupa as a peak. Also scattered in all pelatarannya some ten yard owned stupa Borobudur illustrates clearly the Mahayana school of philosophy. Borobudur Temple is one of the largest temples in the world, and also included in category 7 wonders of the world. At every level carved reliefs on temple walls. These reliefs read according to the clockwise or called mapradaksina in Old Javanese language, which means is east.These reliefs variety of story content, among other reliefs Jataka stories. Reading of the stories are always the starting relief, and ends on the east side of the gate at every level, starting on the left and right ends at the gate. So obviously that the east is the ladder up the real (main) and toward the top of the temple, it means that the temple facing the east while the other sides of similar right. In sequence, there are 4 stories in temple reliefs which significantly briefly as follows:

1. Karmawibhangga

In accordance with the symbolic meaning on the foot of the temple, reliefs which adorn the walls of a hidden shelf that illustrate the law of karma. Rows of relief is not a story series (series), but in every frame illustrates a story that has a causal correlation. Relief is not only gave a picture of human moral turpitude accompanied by a penalty that would obtain, but also human and reward good behavior. Overall, the portrayal of human life in the circle of birth – life – death (samsara) that never ends, and by Buddhism tersebutlah chain will be ended to to perfection.

2. Lalitawistara

It is a portrayal of history of the Buddha in a row of reliefs that starts from the decline of the Buddha from heaven Tusita, and ends with the first sermon in the Deer Park near the city of Banaras. Relief is a row of stairs on the south side, after a row of reliefs exceed a total of 27 frames starting from the east side of the stairs. Frame-frame illustrates busy, both in heaven and on earth, in preparation to welcome the presence of the last incarnation of the Bodhisattva as the candidate of the Buddha. The reliefs depict the birth of the Buddha in this arcapada as Prince Siddhartha, son of King and Queen Maya of Suddhodana Kapilavastu Affairs. Relief is 120 frames, which ended with the first discourse, which is symbolically expressed as a Screening Wheel of Dharma, the teachings of the Buddha is called dharma which also means “law”, whereas dharma is represented as a wheel.

3. Jataka and Awadana

Jataka is the story of the Buddha before he is born as Prince Siddhartha. Protrusion of the contents is the subject of good works, which differentiates the Bodhisattva of any other creature. Indeed, the collection service / good deeds is a stage of preparation in an attempt to level the Buddhahood.
While Awadana, basically almost the same but the culprit is not Jataka the Bodhisattva, but others and the stories collected in the book which means noble deeds Diwyawadana godlike, and the book Awadana Awadanasataka or a hundred stories. In the reliefs of Borobudur temple and awadana Jataka, treated equally, meaning that they are in the same row without a distinguishable. The set of the most famous of the life of the Bodhisattva is Jatakamala or string of Jataka stories, Aryasura poet’s work and who live in the 4th century AD.

4. Gandawyuha

Is a row of reliefs adorn the walls of the hall to-2, is the story of a wandering Sudhana tirelessly in his efforts to find the Highest Knowledge of Truth by Sudhana. Depiction in the 460 frame is based on Mahayana Buddhist scripture entitled Gandawyuha, and for the lid on the story any other book that is Bhadracari.

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The solar system


Solar System is a collection of celestial bodies composed of a star called the sun and all the objects that surround them. These objects include eight planets already known to orbit an ellipse-shaped, five dwarf planets, millions of celestial bodies (meteors, asteroids, comets), and so forth. Meteor is the appearance of lines meteoroids fall into Earth’s atmosphere, often also referred to as shooting stars. The apparition was caused by the heat generated by the ram pressure at the time of meteoroids entering the atmosphere.

Meteor is very bright, much brighter than the sighting of Venus, known as a bolide. If a meteoroids do not burn out in his travels in the atmosphere and reaches Earth’s surface, the resulting object is called a meteorite. Meteor hitting the Earth or other objects to form the Impact Crater. Asteroids, was once called a minor planet or planetoid, are the objects smaller than planets but larger than meteoroids, generally found in the inner Solar System (more in the orbit of the planet Neptune). Different asteroid with a comet from visual sightings comet appeared coma (tails while) while asteroids do not. Comets are celestial bodies in orbit around the sun is elliptical or parabolic. Comets consist of a collection of dust and gas that freezes at the time was far from the sun.When approaching the sun, some building blocks of comets evaporate to form the head and tail gas. Comets also orbit the sun, so that is included in the solar system. Comet is an incandescent gas with orbits different. Long “tail” of the comet could reach millions of kilometers. Some comets travel longer distances in outer space than planets.

Solar System divided into the Sun, the four inner planets, asteroid belt, four outer planets, and in the outer portion is the Kuiper belt and scattered disc. Oort cloud is estimated to lie in the areas farthest distance of about a thousand times beyond the outermost part.
Based on the distance, the eight planets are:

1. Mercury (57.9 million km)
2. Venus (108 million km)
3. Earth (150 million km)
4. Mars (228 million km)
5. Jupiter (779 million km)
6. Saturn (1.43 billion km)
7. Uranus (2.88 billion km)
8. Neptune (4.5 billion km)

Since mid 2008, there were five space objects that are classified as a dwarf planet, which orbits farther from Neptune. All five dwarf planets are:

1. Ceres (415 million km. In the asteroid belt, formerly classified as the fifth planet)
2. Pluto (5.906 billion km.; Formerly classified as the ninth         planet)
3. Haumea (6.45 billion km)
4. Makemake (6.85 billion km)
5. Eris (10.1 billion km)

Six of the eight planets and three dwarf planets of the five was surrounded by a natural satellite, which is commonly called the “month” or so-called natural satellite of Earth.Each of the planet’s outer planets surrounded by rings of dust and other particles.