Supernova


Supernova is the explosion of a star in the galaxy that emits a very large energy. This supernova event marked the end of a history of a star. Which experienced a supernova star will appear very bright and even kecemerlangannya could reach hundreds of millions times the original starlight. The energy emitted by the supernova is very large, even the energy emitted during the supernova occurred within a few seconds just to equal the radiant energy of a star within a period of millions to billions of years. Supernova energy emitted can be calculated based on the properties of the radiation beam. Ordinary supernova occur due to endless age of a star. When the nuclear material in the star’s core has been exhausted, it will not nuclear fusion reactions can occur which is a proponent of life of a star. And when it can not be done this nuclear fusion, the star will die and supernova. There are several types of supernova. Type I and II can be triggered by one of two ways, either stop or activate the production of energy through nuclear fusion. After the core of old stars stop producing energy, the star will experience gravitational collapse of a sudden become a black hole or neutron star, and releasing gravitational potential energy that heats and destroys the outer layers of the star. On average, supernovae occur once every 50 years in the size of the Milky Way galaxy. Supernova has a role in enriching the interstellar medium with elements of the larger mass. Furthermore, the shock waves from supernova explosions is able to form a new star formation. A star that has exhausted their life time, usually will do the supernova. The order of occurrence of supernovae are as follows:

  1. Swelling
    Stars Helium inflated because it sends in it’s core to the surface. Thus the star will become a huge giant star, and red. Inside, the star’s core will be more meyusut. Due to this shrinkage, the increasingly hot and dense stars.
  2. Iron Core
    When all the star’s core has been lost, and the only element left in the iron, then less than a second later a star enters the final stages of its destruction. This is because the nuclear structure does not allow iron atoms in the star to make a fusion reaction to become heavier elements.
  3. Blasting
    At this stage, the temperature at the core of the star increases until it reaches 100 billion degrees Celsius. Then this transferred energy from the core of a star that later exploded wrap and spread the shock wave. When these waves hit the outer layer of material on the star, then the material becomes hot. At a certain temperature, these materials are fused and become the new elements and radioactive isotopes.
  4. Hurling
    Shock wave will catapult the star materials into space.

Type of supernova based on its energy source, is as follows:

  1. Thermonuclear Supernovae (Thermonuclear Supernovae)
    Coming from a star that has a small mass
    Derived from the stars that have evolved further
    The star that exploded was a member of a binary star system.
    The blast destroyed the rest of the star without
    Explosion energy derived from combustion of carbon (C) and oxygen (O)
  2. Collapse supernova-core (Core-collapse Supernovae)
    Coming from a star that has a large mass
    Coming from a star that has a large star envelope and still burn hydrogen in it.
    The star that exploded a single star (like a Supernova Type II), and double stars (such as supernovae type Ib / c)
    Starbursts produce compressible objects form a neutron star or black hole (black hole).
    Explosion energy derived from pressure

Supernova also have implications for life beyond the stars, among them:

  • Produces Metal
    At the core of stars, nuclear fusion reaction occurs. In this reaction born elements heavier than Hydrogen and Helium. When that happens, these elements are thrown out the stars and enrich the surrounding interstellar cloud with heavy elements.
  • Creating Life in the Universe
    Supernova catapult certain elements into space. These elements are then transferred to other parts far from the exploded star. It is assumed that the element or material is then joined to form a new star or even a planet in the universe.

There is one star who did a supernova in space every single second of life on earth.Only, to find stars that will perform the supernova is very difficult. Many factors affect the supernova observations. Even so, there are events that have been observed supernova by humans, among them:

  • Supernova 1994D Long ago, a star exploded in a place very far from the earth. The explosion looked like a bright spot. This occurs on the outsideof the galaxy NGC 4526, and named Supernova 1994D. It emits rays for several weeks after the blast showed that the supernova was a Supernova Type Ia.

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